HD - hip dysplasia:
HD is a developmental abnormality of the hip joint. The two joint-forming bones, the joint socket and the femoral head do not fit together correctly. The malformation usually occurs on both sides and can vary in severity. A distinction is made between the following grades: A1 - A2 (free), B1 - B2 (transitional form), C1 - C2 (light HD), D1 - D2 (medium HD), E1 - E2 (severe HD).
HD is undoubtedly hereditary, to what extent this is the case, there are different views on this, it is assumed about 70%. What is certain is that an external influence is not so strong that a genetically healthy dog has medium or even severe HD and vice versa. It is also certain that a combination of several genetic factors is responsible for the development of HD. External factors that determine the extent of the malformation of the hip joints are the feeding and nutritional status as well as excessive (improper) stress on the puppy and young dog.
ED - Elbow Dysplasia:
Swedish databases have made it clear that ED is much more widespread in the Aussie than previously thought. The ED rate is therefore almost as high as the HD rate, with almost all lines being affected. Breeding dogs should therefore definitely be ED-X-rayed!
As with HD, ED is a developmental anomaly of the elbow joint, whereby a distinction is not made between degrees A - E, as with HD, but with 0 = free, GF = borderline case, I = grade 1 (easy), II = Grade 2 (medium), and III = Grade 3 (difficult) is subdivided.
With ED, dogs from ED grade II are excluded from breeding.
FCP - Fragmented Coronoid Process (FCP) / OCD - Osteochondrosis Dissecans:
Both FCP and OCD are common in dogs four to five months of age during the main growth phase (rarely later). Studies in Sweden, Norway and England have shown that there is a genetic predisposition to both diseases. By mating dogs without FCP and / or OCD or without osteoarthritis, the frequency of the disease could be significantly reduced (similar to HD). The affected animals are also often overweight. Male animals, which tend to grow faster, are more often affected than females. Most of the time, these are animals that are particularly keen to move about, are stressed early on (long walks, playing with older dogs) and, in addition to the already rich puppy food, are given mineral additives, which in turn accelerates the growth rate.
FCP and OCD usually occur on both forelimbs, making it difficult to even tell the lameness. Uncomplicated OCD defects detected early on can heal through strict rest and change of food. Otherwise there is the possibility of surgical therapy, which should also be carried out as early as possible.
This is a dysfunction that corresponds to the dislocation of the kneecap. Causes: ligaments, tendons or muscles on the hind legs are too weak; The upper and lower leg bones are not straight; The groove in the knee joint is too narrow or too shallow. The severity of the patella dislocation is divided into 4 different degrees:
1 (kneecap can only be pushed out with manual help), 2 (kneecap can be dislocated + occasional jumping out when moving, can be pushed back again manually, but also moves back into position itself through movement), 3 (dislocation often, can be manually re-directed, but does not stay on Place), 4 (manual assistance not possible, kneecap is constantly dislocated).
The patella luxation is greatly promoted by the dog's obesity! A fit dog with good muscle structure and stable ligaments and tendons is not prone to patella luxation. Gender is basically irrelevant, but bitches have softer, more elastic ligaments during heat and pregnancy. This is due to the altered hormone production during this phase. So you shouldn't have the status of the patellas checked during this time.
Patella dislocation is hereditary, so affected dogs should not be used for breeding. An operation is possible.